The Instrumental Case of Adjectives in Russian Language

To mastering the Russian language, it is important to have a good understanding of the nominative, genitive, accusative, dative, instrumental, and prepositional cases. For now, let’s learn about the instrumental case of adjectives. The instrumental case is used to show an action or describe the profession. It’s use after prepositions like c (with), между (between), перед (in front of), за (behind), над (over), and под (under). When we use a noun in the instrumental case, we must change the adjectives as well in the instrumental case. Just like the dative case of adjectives, there is also formulas for instrumental case that is divided into hard and soft variants as you can see in the below.

The Hard Adjectives

The hard adjectives have suffix “-ый”, “-ой”, and “-ий”.


[tr][th]Masculine[/th] [th]Feminine[/th] [th]Neuter[/th] [th]Plural[/th][/tr]

[tr][td]-ым[/td] [td]-ой[/td] [td]-ым[/td] [td]-ыми[/td][/tr]


Here are further  examples and it’s using in sentences :

– Первый (first) –> Первым, Первой, Первым, Первыми

– Новый (new) –> Новым, Новой, Новым, Новыми

– Печальный (sad) –> Печальным, Печальной, Печальным, Печальными

– Добрый (kind) –> Добрым, Доброй, Добрым, Добрыми

– Старый (old) –> Старым, Старой, Старым, Старыми

  1. Вчера Я познакомилась с новым соседом
    (Vchera ya poznakomilas’ s novym sosedom)
    Yesterday I have met a new neighbor
  1. Я с добрыми друзьями пойду в кино
    (Ya s dobrymi druz’yami poydu v kino)
    My kind friends and I will go to the cinema.
  1. Они построили дом за старым домом
    (Oni postroili dom za starym domom)
    They built a house behind an old house.
  1. Она разговаривает с первым человеком, который пришел.
    (Ona razgovarivayet s pervym chelovekom, kotoryy prishel)
    She talks with the first person who came

The Soft Adjectives

The soft adjectives have “-ний”.


[tr][th]Masculine[/th] [th]Feminine[/th] [th]Neuter[/th] [th]Plural[/th][/tr]

[tr][td]-им[/td] [td]-ей (or -ею)[/td] [td]-им[/td] [td]-ими[/td][/tr]


Below are further examples of instrumental case of adjective in Russian Language:

– Утренний (morning) à Утренним,  Утренней, Утренним, Утренними

– Передний (front)à Передним, Передней, Передним, Передними

– Дальний (distant, long run) à Дальним, Дальней, Дальним, Дальними

– Последний (last) à Последним, Последней, Последним, Последними

– Синий (blue) à Синим, Синей, Синим, Синими

  1. Она пишет письмо с синей ручкой
    (Ona pishet pis’mo s siney ruchkoy)
    She is writing a letter with a blue pen
  1. Мы встречаться каждую субботу за утренним кофе.
    (My vstrechat’sya kazhduyu subbotu za utrennim kofe)
    We meet every Saturday for morning coffee.
  1. Телефон с передней вспышкой.
    (Telefon s peredney vspyshkoy
    Phone with front flash.

To make sentences using the instrumental case of adjectives, you need to remember the formulas and keep practicing. If you still find it difficult, you can try to read articles or short stories in Russian. Then, try to find out the sentences that you think is use the instrumental case of adjectives. Doing this will make you familiar with the structure of the sentence. If you also interested to learn about culture  and the etiquette of Russia, you can check it out here too. Have a wonderful day!

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